My Thoughts on Technology and Jamaica: Higgs Boson Discovery is the Biggest discovery of 2012 - Lay the Favourite for Anti-Gravity, Light Speed Travel and Quantum Teleportation Deadfall

Thursday, January 3, 2013

Higgs Boson Discovery is the Biggest discovery of 2012 - Lay the Favourite for Anti-Gravity, Light Speed Travel and Quantum Teleportation Deadfall



“I would like to add my congratulations to everyone involved in this achievement. It's really an incredible thing that it's happened in my lifetime”

Professor Peter Higgs during the presentation by the CERN Scientists on Wednesday July 4th 2012 at the time of the discovery of the Higgs Boson that bears his name

The discovery of the Higgs Boson, the Elementary Particle that accounts for Matter i.e. Atoms, molecules, having Mass was the toast of the scientific community on Wednesday July 4th 2012 as stated in “Higgs boson-like Particle discovery claimed at LHC”, published 4 July 2012 Last updated at 07:35 GMT By Paul Rincon, Science editor, BBC News. 

This is a very big achievement in the Particle Physics World made after forty five (45) years of Research from the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Scientists who in the process co-developed the Internet along with DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) to aid collaborative communicating their Data over long distances.

It also confirms the work of Dr. Peter Higgs from 1964 and his idea of a Field that adds Mass to Elementary Particles depending on much or how little this Field interacted with these Elementary Particles. It explains why some Elementary Particles had Mass and some were Massless, thereby completing the then accepted Standard Model.


Its subsequent confirmation via two (2) rounds of Peer review and publication of 2 papers in Physics Letter B as stated in the article “Higgs Boson Discovery Has Been Confirmed”, published 9/12/2012 @ 12:48AM by Alex Knapp, Forbes sealed the discovery as being legit, albeit more peer review will be taking place in 2013 to further validate the Data.

The discovery was made by the CERN, home of the LHC (Large Hadron Super Collider), the biggest Particle Accelerator located on the edge of the border between Geneva, Switzerland and France. It accelerates Protons, the basic building blocks of the Universe at the Atomic level at incredibly high speeds in a circular track that’s located several miles below the Surface.

The twin counter-rotating beams of Protons are guided around the track that is a perfect Vacuum, simulating conditions in Outer Space by very powerful superconducting Magnets. These very high speed Protons are then smashed into each other at a specific point in the accelerator that has sensors to detect its remnant fragments.

In much the same way crushing rocks helps to break it into smaller components that can be analyzed by a geologist or an assayist to determine its chemical makeup under the microscope, Scientists at CERN can study the terabytes of Data on the Particle fragments to determine what makes up Protons and in turn sub-atomic particles. The more powerful the Accelerator, the finer the fragments they can produce by smashing Protons into each other and thus gain finer details into the Elementary Particles that constitute Matter. 

So what’s the Higgs Boson and what the significance of its discovery to the Layman?


According to Professor of Physics and Astronomy Dr. Steven Weinberg of the University of Texas at Austin in the article “Why the Higgs Boson Matters”, published July 13, 2012 By STEVEN WEINBERG, The NY Times, the Higgs Boson is the missing Scalar Field that gives Elementary Particle their Masses.

This Particle fills the gap left in the Standard Model, the mutually accepted Theory-of-Everything that uses Quantum Theory and other Theories in Elementary Particle Physics to basically break down all Matter into four (4) Forces:

1.      The Strong Force – this binds the Elementary Particle that create the nuclei of Atoms and all Matter
2.      The Weak Force – this causes radioactive decay in in the Nuclei of Atoms and all Matter
3.      Electromagnetic Force – combined, this accounts for Electromagnetic Radiation and its observable properties
4.      Gravity – This Force acts over large distance and is basically the observable force of attraction between Matter at the Macroscopic level

Using De Broglie’s concept of Particle-Wave Duality, these Forces exist both as wave fields and Particles and all of them have been detected by the CERN Scientists. As such, Elementary Particles exist in the Standard Model to represent Force Carriers, called Bosons:

1.      The Strong Force is represented by the Z Boson (Z)
2.      The Weak Force is represented by the W Boson (W)
3.      Electromagnetic Force is represented by the Photon (g)
4.      Gravity is represented by the Gluon (g)

This leaves the Elementary Particles that are not Force Carriers, called the Fermions that exists as two (2) separate Groups:

1.      Quarks, which are distinguished by their Spin in the various 3D axes. They constitute Protons and Neutrons in Atoms
2.      Leptons, which come as either charged or uncharged Elementary Particles. They constitute Electrons and their uncharged cousins

The Diagram below best illustrates the Standard Model and the names given to the Bosons and the Fermions, namely the Quarks and Leptons:

As can be readily seen, the Higgs Boson, which accounts for Mass, is separate and apart from the rest of the Standard Model, as its inclusion adds Mass to these Elementary Particles.

Another concept that exists in Elementary Particle Physics, called Symmetry, pretty much allows one type of Force or Particle to act in the stead of another Field in the Physicists equations with no noticeable difference. This as mathematically speaking, Elementary Particles have no Masses, making it easy to substitute them for each other in equations e.g. any equation involving Photons can be replaced by suitable combinations of W Boson and Z Boson Particles.

Simple enough so far? Keep a bottle of Paracetamol handy, as it goes downhill from here.

Reality sets in as it gets worse; this ideal theoretical world build up by Scientists is far from reality as the Elementary Particles have Masses, albeit very small. Masses so small that they’re expressed in a unit of measure known as the eV (Electron Volt), which is the e.m.f. (Electromotive force) or Voltage Potential of the electron.

That Energy can be used to represent Mass should be obvious to Physics students, as Albert Einstein’s now famous equation E=mc2 indicates Energy is just another form of Mass, effectively an analogous expression De Broglie’s Particle-Wave Duality! It’s also easier to represent Mass of Elementary Particles in eV’s as their Mass is so small, that it’s more conveniently expressed in this unit of measure.

This unexplained Mass of otherwise Massless Elementary Particles renders Symmetry equations useless e.g. W and Z Boson Particles are almost 100 times a Hydrogen Atom’s Mass, which are just a Proton and a Neutron. This quirky phenomenon is referred to as Symmetry Breaking.

The independent work of Scientists Dr. Steven Weinberg and Dr. Abdus Salam via their Electro-Weak (Electromagnetism and the Weak Force) Theory (1967-1968) provided more evidence of this Symmetry Breaking being caused by what are termed Scalar Fields and indicated the Masses of the W and Z Bosons. Since these Scalar Fields are predicted to have Mass, the CERN Scientists have found out the Masses of some of these Particles that represent these basics Forces that rule the Universe.

Their Electro-Weak Theory concept on Scalar Fields as predicted the existence of a Massive, unstable zero spin Elementary Particle that gave Mass to the Elementary Particles; this of course was the much sought after Higgs Boson, whose properties the Electro-Weak Theory predicted. The Electro-Weak Theory, however, did not predict the Mass of the Higgs Boson which the CERN Scientists were able to measure upon its discovery as having a Mass of 125.3 GeV.

The fact that the Higgs Boson detected by the CERN is so massive, about 133 times bigger than the very Protons that make up the nuclei of Atoms, suggests its decay path will consist of many possible modes. The probability that the Particle they’ve discovered may not be the Higgs Boson is very real and will require months of sifting through Data to be absolutely certain.

Thus, based on CERN’s Data and exhaustive peer review as mentioned above, if this new unstable Elementary Particle has zero spin and decays in the exact manner atypical of the Higgs Boson predicted by the Electro-Weak Theory, then the CERN discovery is legit to Five Sigma (∑) level in terms of Standard Deviation.

This level of Certainty is expressed by Particle Physicists as the Sigma (∑) level is really a Mathematical concept familiar to Statisticians as the Standard Deviation of a Probability. This dictates the likelihood of an event e.g. flipping a coin and getting heads or lightning striking the same spot as being purely random i.e. 1 Sigma (∑).

If such events are seen to occur multiple times in succession, e.g. flipping a coin 21 times and getting heads every time or lightning striking the same spot 100 times, then the event is no longer random and can be considered purposeful and certain i.e. 5 Sigma (∑). At this level of certainty, CERN Scientists can declare that here is a 1 in 3.5 million Chance that the particle they’ve discovered is not the Higgs Boson. This is the degree of certainty with which the CERN Scientists had made the preliminary declaration on Wednesday July 4th 2012 that they’d found the elusive Elementary Particle that had evaded them for 45 years.

This work of analyzing the mountains of Data coming out of the LHC requires more than just Super Computing muscle and had been breathtakingly fast according to Dr. Steve Myers, Director for Accelerators and Technology based on the article “Physicist Steve Myers lauds speed of Higgs boson progress”, published 31 December 2012 Last updated at 13:53 GMT, BBC News. It also requires testing out known theories about what we perceive as Matter, as the observed Universe appears to have Hidden Mass. This Hidden Mass or Dark Matter is thought to constitute at least 97% of the known Universe, with the remaining 3% being mainly Atoms that make up Mass we can see.

Of course, John Public, looking at all of this use of Accelerators to smash Protons to determine their Elementary Particles may be tempted to say, “if Atoms are made of these Elementary Particles, what are these Elementary Particles themselves made of?”.

This discovery of the Higgs Boson is only just the beginning; the LHC is already ramping up with an upgrade to power the Accelerator to even higher energies in a bid to smash the Protons into even smaller Elementary Particles in a bid to find out what these Elementary Particles themselves are made of. Hopefully, in the process, they don’t end up creating any Singularities (Black Holes), even at the atomic level, as that might not be good for Earth and its Inhabitants!

If confirmed, the Elementary Particles would have gotten their Mass from the Higgs Boson, as per the Standard Model. So John Public looks upon all this, frowns and asks, “Does all this research into Elementary Particles have any practical applications?”. So far, the equiptment and Research needed to build the LHC and manipulating the gigabytes of Data Generated has resulted in the development of technology behind the Superconducting Ceramic Magnets and also developed the Internet for collaborative work as we know it, which had begun as the Arpanet Project by DARPA.

Thus the low-key Research by the CERN can be compared to a less-hyped version of NASA (National Aeronautical Space Administration) and the Moon Missions of even to World War II; it fast-tracked the development of Technologies via doing Research into Field seeking Technology that was needed at the time and found practical Application via licensing the Technology later on during times of Peace.

This is where imagination comes into play. Since the Higgs Boson is responsible for Adding Mass to the Elementary Particles, then via manipulating it using Electrical and Magnetic Fields, the Higgs Boson has several surprising practical Applications:

Anti-Gravity 

The Higgs Boson adds Mass. Remove or Suppress the Higgs Boson, and the object becomes partially or completely massless. Such and object would no longer be subject to accelerating forces due to Gravity and thus could fly without the need for Jet engines to liberate itself from Gravity’s pull. Aside from being a new form of propulsion for everything from flying Buses, flying motorcycles to flying Cars, Jetsons Style, it may also find usefulness as a protection system e.g. Crash Prevention in Flying Aircraft and even preventing smartphones and Tablets from breaking whenever they fall.

This is an expansion on the original research work as postulated by the patent by CEO Jeff Bezos as described in my blog articles entitled “Amazon patents Fall Prevention Technology for smartphones and Tablets - The Research begins with Amazon’s patent that’s Hyde Park on Hudson (2013)

Light Speed Travel

Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory points out that faster than Light Travel isn’t possible as approaching those speeds, an objects density increases i.e. its Mass increases and its longest dimension, its length, decreases. This makes maintaining Acceleration Force difficult as F=Ma, where M is Mass is always increasing. Making a spacecraft Massless would allow it to travel at the Speed of Light.

Once such Engines could be developed to push Spacecraft at the Speed of Light, the potential for Exploration and Colonization of our Solar System and our Galaxy as explained in my blog articles entitled “Alternative Energy and the Ion Drive Engine - Star Trek and Andromeda” and the article  Alternative Energy and Daedelus - Avatar and Planet Gliese 581g Next Door” would become a regular affair.

Anti-Matter Converter

The removal of the Higgs Boson altogether from the Atomic Structure may result in an easier method of making Anti-Matter. Ironically the Higgs Boson is its own Anti-Particle since it adds Mass to Elementary Particles (get it?).

Anti-Matter is the mirror image opposite of Matter as described in the Standard Model. Anti-Matter is the Holy Grail of Particle Physics as developing a Generator, he so called AMC (Anti-Matter Converter) much spoken of in Star Trek shows and movies to produce Anti-Matter on Demand would make Space Travel very convenient as quaintly suggested in the article “How the Higgs Could Become Annoying”, published Fri Jul 6, 2012 12:00 PM ET by Sharon Klotz, Discovery News.

Just collect any material you come across while traveling through space and throw it into the AMC (Anti-Matter Converter) to produce Gamma Radiation, the main Energy form that’s produced via the annihilation of Matter by Anti-Matter. This Gamma Radiation can then be used to power a Nuclear Fusion Impulse Rocket as described in my blog article entitled “University of Alabama, NASA, Boeing and Oak Ridge National Laboratory developing Nuclear Fusion Impulse Rocket - Ross Cortez's Dilithium Crystals leads Star Trek Into The Darkness

Quantum Teleportation

As the Higgs Boson consists almost 96% of the Mass of the Known Universe, it may be assumed that ordinary objects also have a similar constituency as it relates to Dark Energy and Elementary Particles at the Sub-Atomic Level and Atoms and Molecules at the Atomic and Macroscopic Level. This so-called Dark Energy’s removal, if possible from Elementary Particles without the Atoms losing their cohesion, would mean that Quantum Teleportation could be done more easily as described in my blog article entitled “Scientists demonstrate Quantum Teleportation over 90 miles on Canary Islands - Telecom Providers become Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy as FLORA Networks are feasible”.

Instead of destroying the object and the Transmitting Pad and reducing it to a massive stream of Super High Speed Data on the Quantum Mechanical State of the Object Elementary Particles at a particular Instant in Time to be reassembled at a Receiving Pad, you could instead first remove its Mass. Then the Transmitting Pad would only have to scan the remaining 4% of the object’s Mass consisting of Elementary Particles, making the as-yet-to-be-full-developed Quantum Teleportation more Energy Efficient in the future.

Time Travel

If Light Speed, Quantum Teleportation and Anti-Matter are possible, then Time Travel may not be too far behind. This as a massless object can more easily travel through a so-called naturally occurring Einstein-Rosenberg Bridges or Wormhole, many of which may connect different point in Space or Time.

First, send through an autonomous AI (Artificially Intelligent) Ship through the Wormhole at the Speed of Light to the other side of the Wormhole to set up the Receiving Pad for Quantum Teleportation Purposes. Then Teleport objects through to be received by the Receiving Pad to Test Transmission through a Wormhole before regular Traffic can begin.

People would follow next, provided they’re given Marijuana (Cannabis Sativa) or Psilocybin to relax their minds to withstand the stresses of Impulse Travel and then Quantum Teleportation as theorized in my blog article entitled “Future Ultra-Wideband enables Quantum Teleportation - THC, Salvia and Psilocybin Ben 10 Alien Force”.

Nuclear Fusion and Arc Reactors
                                                                                                                              
The development of Nuclear Fusion, which involves the fusion of Smaller Nuclei under extreme Pressure, Temperature and Super Conducting Magnet Containment System to contain the Deuterium Atoms being fused to Plasma to produce Self-sustaining Energy in a Process akin to the Sun, would get a huge boost. This as the Energy Source usually used to achieve the conditions in a Nuclear Fusion Chamber have to mimic temperatures within the core of the Sun involve the use of a Nuclear Fission Reactor as the Primary Energy Source, much as is the case in a Nuclear Fission Fusion Bomb.

It’s used to power the very strong Lasers used to fuse the Nuclei of Deuterium Atoms, which are essentially High Energy accelerated Photons and maintain the Super Conducting Magnet Containment System that’s used to keep the Gas Plasma from leaking into the Environment. This technology is borrowed from Research that went into the design of the LHC. The development of an AMC would allow for the use of Gamma Radiation in the Lasers as well as more than enough power to maintain the Super Conducting Magnet Containment System to squeeze the Plasma and thus maintain conditions for ignition in the Nuclear Fusion Chamber.

Once this is achieved, the Energy from the Nuclear Fusion Chamber can then be converted to usable Energy such as Electricity in a self-sustaining manner without need for more Energy, again like the Sun or even an Arc Reactor, Iron Man Style. This is the dream of Nuclear Fusion and the Hydrogen-Electron Economy it heralds, as Deuterium is plentiful in the Sea.

Conclusion: Higgs Boson is the Beginning

As mentioned in the sub-heading, we are but on the threshold of a Great Adventure. Research no doubt will continue on at CERN well into 2013. This as the LHC’s being upgraded to operate at even higher Energies as stated in “Atom smasher hiatus sets stage for more discovery”, published January 4th 2012 By JOHN HEILPRIN, Associated Press for smashing Protons into even Smaller Elementary Particle Fragments to see what they’re made of, fears of Singularities and Nuclear Explosions aside. The current discovery of the Higgs Boson, if confirmed, means Nobel Prizes for Physics for the CERN Scientists involved.

But it’s the practical spinoff from subsequent research the CERN our modern Day Manhattan Project and its manipulation via Electric and Magnetic Fields that has me excited and Lay the Favourite (2012) for:

1.      Anti-Gravity 
2.      Light Speed Travel
3.      Anti-Matter Converter
4.      Quantum Teleportation
5.      Time Travel
6.      Nuclear Fusion and Arc Reactors

Thus I await with baited breath further publications in Science Journals confirming that the CERN’s Research Data proves beyond a shadow of a Doubt that the Higgs Boson has been “Discovered”.
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